The United Nations Security Council, through Resolution 2552 of 12 November 2020, assigned the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) Section the mandate to:
- "Assist the Central African authorities in the development and implementation of an inclusive and progressive programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of members of armed groups and, in the case of foreign combatants, for repatriation (DDRR) [...]"
- "Assist the Central African authorities and relevant civil society organizations to develop and implement community violence reduction programmes [...]"
I- Support for the National DDRR Programme (PNDDRR)
MINUSCA's support to the Central African Authorities in the implementation of the PNDDRR is done at several levels:
- The DDR Section has started to lay the foundations of its programmes and projects with the transitional government. It was actively present during the Bangui Forum in May 2015 and contributed to the drafting of the first text that served as a basis for the Bangui Agreement on the principles of DDRR and integration into the uniformed state bodies.
- It is a member of the DDRR/RSS/RN Strategic Committee, which is the political decision-making body for DDRR chaired by the Head of State, with representation from the government, notably the Ministry of DDRR and APPR follow-up, relevant national institutions (UEPNDDRR, Comnat-ALPC...), armed groups and international partners. The DDR section is also a member of the DDRR/RSS/RN Technical Committee which prepares the meetings of the Strategic Committee in terms of proposing decisions and orientations; and is also responsible for integrating the orientations of the Strategic Committee into the development of the National DDRR Programme strategies.
- The DDR Section facilitated the creation of the Comité Consultatif et de Suivi (CCS), a political framework for discussing all issues related to DDRR composed of representatives of 14 government-recognized armed groups, civil society representatives, national and international experts.
- The DDR Section supports the Unité d'Exécution du programme national de désarmement, démobilisation, réintégration et rapatriement (UEPNDDRR) through
- Provision of technical support for the organization and planning of future disarmament and demobilization (DD) operations and advocacy towards armed groups...
- Financial support to DD operations for the deployment of mobile teams and payment of allowances to demobilized people during the DD phase through MINUSCA's own funds and US funds.
- Assist inthe provision of security for DD operations, with support from MINUSCA Force in conjunction with the National Security and Defence Forces (SDF) for the provision of escorts for DD-related movements/travel.
- Logistical support for UEPNDDRR personnel as required for their air transportation.
II- Implementation of the Community Violence Reduction (CVR) programme, commonly known as CVR
From Pre-DDR to CVR
- Pre-DDR, an innovative programme
The DDR section designed and implemented the pre-DDR programme, which started in October 2015 and ended in June 2017. It was an innovative programme because the Central African Republic is the first country in which the UN implemented such a programme as a preparatory phase of the National DDRR Programme and as an essential tool for the security and stabilization of communities.
Through this programme, the section supported combatants wishing to leave armed groups before the official launch of the National Programme for Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation (PNDDRR). It offered alternatives to violence to those who agreed to voluntarily lay down their arms (Cash for Work and Income Generating Activities (IGA)). A total of 4,325 beneficiaries, including 737 women, participated in the Pre-DDR programme in Bangui, Kaga-Bandoro, Bria, Bambari, Bouar, Ndele and Birao.
- The CVR programme, a tool for community stabilization and pacification
What is CVR?
CVR stands for "Community Violence Reduction". It is a programme designed to be complementary to the PNDDRR and which targets communities.
- Aims to reduce violence at the community level
- Contributes to the pacification and stabilization of communities
- Strengthens the resilience of communities against local and external conflict dynamics
- Prevents community violence and recruitment of youth by armed groups
- Is a very flexible tool to intervene quickly in local conflicts to provide an alternative to violence, improve security and create space for dialogue, which can lead to local peace/non-aggression agreements (which are in turn, supported by CVR activities);
- Youth prone to violence including youth associated with armed groups and/or self-defenses groups not eligible for PNDDRR
- Other community members, with attention to the participation of women (minimum 30%).
- Short-term vocational training (3 months) in the trades of their choice (commerce, sewing, agropastoral, carpentry, masonry, IT, etc.)
- Civic and citizenship training, which aims to transmit civic values to the beneficiaries with a view to changing their behavior (renouncing violence)
- Support for the start-up of income-generating activities, preferably in associative groups
- Raising-awareness sessions in support of social cohesion, peaceful living, and reconciliation
- Weapons collection in support of community violence reduction
- Community interest projects and opportunities for cash for work
Community Ownership of CVR:
All CVR projects are implemented according to the principle of community ownership through local CVR project committees in the regions and the Local Peace and Reconciliation Committees (CLPRs) in Bangui. These Committees play a cross-cutting role in project implementation through beneficiary identification, sensitization sessions, identification of economic opportunities and project monitoring.
- Implementation of income-generating activities by beneficiaries
Examples: agriculture projects in the Bouar area; transport project in Kaga Bandoro; sewing projects in Bangassou; bakery project in Bria, mechanic garage project in Bangui, etc.)
- Rehabilitation and construction of several infrastructures
Most recent examples: construction of 2 multi-purpose centers and 15 water pumps in Bria, rehabilitation, and construction of youth centers in Kaga Bandoro and Sibut, building of a women's center in Bangassou, building of 2 health centers in Kounde and Bawi (two sub-prefectures of Bouar), rehabilitation of markets in the Bossangoa prefecture, etc.
- Sensitize the beneficiaries and the community at large.
Examples of topics: peaceful coexistence, social cohesion, rumor management, etc.
- The contribution of the CVR programme to Covid19 response
Examples of activities: CVR project beneficiaries produced prevention kits according to their trade such as face-masks, soaps, handwashing materials and songs for sensitization. A total of 120,000 face-masks and 105,000 soaps were produced and handed over to local authorities, community leaders and project beneficiaries.
CVR in figures
- Since the beginning of the CVR in 2016 until today, the DDR section MINUSCA with its implementing partner United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) have through the implementation of CVR supported, 22. 337 participants, including 6,503 women; and a total of 14,145 weapons, including 579 weapons of war, were collected in the localities of Bangui, Berberati, Bouar, Ndele, Birao, Kaga Bandoro, Batangafo, Bambari, Bria, Bossangoa and Bangassou
- For the year 2020-2021, 3,672 beneficiaries, including 1,529 women, benefited from CVR; and 1456 weapons were collected, including 63 war weapons in Bangui, Bossangoa, Bria, Kaga-Bandoro, Bouar and Bangassou
- Other CVR projects were implemented by the implementing partner International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Bambari and Paoua; targeting 8,000 beneficiaries in Paoua from 2016 to 2018 and 2,700 beneficiaries in Bambari from 2019 to 2020.